General Insect Control in Dubai
Pest management means the reduction of pest populations to tolerable numbers by changing practices, making habitat or structural alterations, and carefully using pesticides to kill pests only when indicated. Many variations and combinations of methods are used to control pests, but the sequence of these methods follows a pattern: inspection, habitat alteration, pesticide application, and follow-up
Pests do not infest uniformly—they focus on specific areas. These pest-preferred sites must be understood and located. Training and experience in conducting inspections are important for successful location of infested areas.
Infested areas provide harborage, (i.e., a place that provides an organism’s food, water, and shelter requirements) for pests, so changing or eliminating some of these favorable elements will make survival less successful. Such changes commonly include increased sanitation, moisture reduction, and the elimination of clutter.
Though successful habitat alteration can reduce or eliminate populations, it will often be less than complete and pesticide application may be necessary. The key to pest control is the successful combination of these methods.
Some pest management programs do not include more than the minimum follow-up, such as legally mandated record keeping. However, follow-up practices such as detailed record keeping, supervisor oversight, and a quality control program can make the difference between the success or failure of a pest management program.
Approaches to Insect Pest Control in Dubai
There are four approaches to current structural pest management activities: prevention, reaction, extermination, and integrated pest management. Pest management firms may utilize one, a few, or all of these methods depending on company resources and the types of pest management problems encountered.
Preventive Pest Control
In preventive pest control, a technician follows a preestablished schedule or route to:
■ Make expected appearances.
■ Make inspections
■ Apply appropriate controls.
■ Talk with the tenant or manager.
■ Record information required by law.
Though the inspection can indicate where pests occur, with this approach, pesticides are usually applied regardless of whether pests are observed or not. Those who practice this approach are satisfied that pests will be killed as they contact the pesticide residue.
• Contracts can be fulfilled routinely.
• Work can be set up easily.
• The technician can proceed as rapidly as possible.
• Occupants are satisfied if pests do not appear.
• It is the most economical short-term approach.
• Time alone governs the schedule.
• Inspections are brief.
• Boredom from repetition can affect the technician.
• Pesticides may be used regardless of whether there is an infestation.
• There is no evaluation.
• Records are brief.
• Long-term solutions are not provided.
Reactive Pest Control
In reactive pest control, a technician responds to special, unscheduled calls and:
■ Talks with clients.
■ Makes an inspection.
■ Identifies infested sites.
■ Applies pesticides to pests or sites.
■ Records necessary information required by law.
• Response is relatively quick.
• The occupant is satisfied by the fast response and immediate pest suppression.
• The interaction with technicians is positive.
• Minor recommendations by the technician to clients are often accepted because the client requested them. Such recommendations make pest control more effective.
• Situations are more interesting for technicians, and boredom is reduced.
• Clients often mistakenly assume complete extermination.
• Clients are quick to anger if the problem recurs.
• Without a detailed inspection, failure is likely.
• Pesticides are often used as barriers if pests are not found.
• This approach is less economical than scheduled, route-type responses.
• Records are brief.
Pest Elimination or Pest Extermination
A senior technician, usually a supervisor, responds to an appointment, and:
■ Interacts with clients.
■ Makes an intensive inspection.
■ Recommends methods to reduce pest food, water, and harborage, such as sanitation, maintenance improvements, habitat alteration, etc.
■ Applies pesticides in a variety of formulations each time.
■ Makes follow-up inspections.
■ Records information on past inspection and recommendations as well as information required by law.
• Significant interaction with the pest control supervisor gives the client a good understanding of the problem and the changes needed for control.
• The pest control supervisor interacts directly with clients.
• Longer-lasting control results from changes made by the client.
• Thorough pesticide application occurs.
• There is a high level of interest by technicians.
• Mistakes in inspection and recommendations to clients or subsequent lack of follow-through by clients will result in control failure.
• A maximum amount of pesticides is usually used; chances of potential misuse, misapplication, and pesticide accidents are increased.
• High pesticide and labor costs are sustained.
• Unexpected results are quickly noticed and questioned.
• The energy required to completely eliminate a pest population is much greater than that required to keep a pest population suppressed to a tolerable level.
Integrated Pest Management
Commercial applicators are required. After a pest management technician makes a thorough inspection, an integrated pest management program is developed that includes a detailed plan and schedule. Elements of the detailed plan and schedule are:
■ The designation of zones of probable infestation and sites of pest infestation within the zones.
■ Recommendations for sanitation, maintenance improvements, habitat alteration, reduction of moisture, work procedure changes, safe practices, methods of application.
• Long-term pest control procedures are used.
• Client management is involved.
• Costs are reduced over time.
• A reduction of pesticide use (e.g., elimination of preventive spraying) is attained. • A low-toxicity pesticide response is possible.
• Not every company or agency has the expertise to provide pest management programs.
• There is a labor-intensive start-up period.
• Costs are higher than “low bid.”
Geman Cockroach (Blattella germanica)
The German cockroach not only is the cause of the largest number of phone calls requesting pest control but also represents the largest number of control failures among household pests. It is very successful at infesting human structures and withstanding pest control activity. Pest control technicians will need to double their efforts in analyzing every German cockroach infestation and should be prepared to use more than one technique to bring the infestation under control.
The most convenient harborage, in and around refrigerators, stoves, under sinks, and undisturbed cabinets, provides both protection and food. The most favorable humidity level is found in kitchens with sink traps, leaking faucets, standing water, wet sponges, etc. A bathroom is favorable because of the toilet bowls, sinks, wet washcloths, and sometimes water heaters. Though there is less food in bathrooms, food areas are usually nearby or available through holes around plumbing pipes. These pipes provide additional harborage and areas for population expansion into adjacent rooms or apartments.
German cockroaches are not likely to leave favorable harborage unless population pressure or other negative changes occur. Such “other” changes can be caused by:
■ Intensive cleaning.
■ Pesticide applications.
■ Reduction of temperature or humidity.
If cockroaches find new locations with favorable conditions, they can migrate from one harborage to another or develop new infestations. In areas of high infestation, German cockroaches can build up outside heavily infested apartment units in the summer. Most often, outdoor infestations are found only outside the structures from which steady roach migrations occur, and near dumpsters and garbage cans.
Control and Management of the German cockroach in Dubai, UAE
With Flashlights. An active flashlight inspection is the most intensive method of locating roaches. The technician can search dark, undisturbed, or remote places of roach harborage that a client may have thought too inaccessible. Hand mirrors, magnifying hand lens, or other small tools may be helpful to some technicians.
With Traps. Passive use of sticky traps is a common inspection or monitoring method used for roach detection. Correct trap placement depends upon the applicator’s understanding of roach foraging habits. For instance, jars and traps baited with fermenting materials such as beer, bread, potatoes, or softened raisins indicate population size but are not especially helpful for finding harborage.
If pesticide treatments are required, concentrate on injecting pesticides into active harborage rather than preventively treating uncertain harborage.
■ The crack and crevice type of pesticide application is preferred. Use a narrow diameter extension tube in infested cracks and crevices to provide a thorough application of residual insecticide (under furniture, drawers, and sinks, around pipes, and in high cabinets). First remove utensils and supplies in cabinets; do not treat shelf surfaces.
■ In homes, offices and other non-food areas, use spot applications and apply pesticides to areas where insects are likely to occur. Apply spot treatments only when they can be safely used in areas of known infestation (application areas, ideally, of no more than two sq. ft.).
■ Space treatments include aerosols, fogs, or ultralow-dosage dispensers. They flush cockroaches out, causing them to cross residual pesticide applications, or they kill the insects by direct contact. They lack crack and crevice penetration. The need for repeated fogging at short intervals indicates populations are rising, not decreasing. Fog treatments should not be used in food or occupied areas without prior removal of food.
■ Bait stations should not be contaminated by sprays or dusts that may be repellant. Place an adequate number of stations in or very near harborage. Follow-up A technician should record the data collected with each activity. Such information is helpful in understanding the problem over time and in providing clear communication with clients.
Brown-banded cockroaches are generally not as widespread as the German cockroach, but where they find favorable harborage, such as warm apartments and overheated office buildings, they build up infestations rivaling those of the German cockroach.
Brown-banded cockroaches, like German cockroaches, build up the highest populations in kitchens. Their tendency is to flourish in apartments and homes where high temperatures are maintained. They frequent high cabinets and favor areas near stoves and warm motors, such as those in refrigerators, electric clocks, light timers, televisions, and radios.
Control and Management of the Brown-banded Cockroach in Dubai
Search areas frequented by the brown-banded cockroach. Look for roaches and egg cases.
Apply caulk around pipes and other wall penetrations. Where possible, suggest that the client clean and replace shelf paper and drawer liners, reduce clutter, and consistently remove garbage before nightfall. Eating in non-dining areas should be discouraged. A biological control for brown-banded cockroaches is a small wasp, Comperia merceti, that is a parasite on the egg capsule. A female wasp seeks dark areas where she can find brown-banded cockroach egg capsules in which to lay her eggs. The tiny wasp larvae eat the roach eggs, then emerge from the capsules, fly to windows where the sexes meet and mate—and the cycle begins again. This wasp parasite has been used as part of a cockroach management program.
■ Use a narrow-diameter extension tube in infested cracks and crevices to provide a thorough application of residual insecticide: under furniture, drawers, and sinks, and around pipes and high cabinets. First remove utensils and supplies in cabinets; do not treat shelf surfaces.
■ Consider pesticide formulations not readily absorbed by unpainted wood.
■ Bait stations with a long active period are effective but should not be contaminated by sprays or dusts that may be repellant. Place an adequate number in or very near harborage.
■ Spot sprays often break down before egg capsules hatch.
■ Space sprays lack crack and crevice penetration. No pesticide application used alone will control roaches satisfactorily without habitat alteration
The American cockroach is cosmopolitan and is often cited in historical accounts. Its worldwide distribution has been aided by its ability to thrive aboard ships. Like the Oriental cockroach, the American cockroach is sometimes called “waterbug.” In the southern United States, it is called “palmetto bug.”
Large populations of American cockroaches live in warm moist habitats. They winter in decaying trees and woodpiles. They can be found in boiler rooms or other harborage with water heaters, floor drains, water sumps, and warm, moist basements.
Control and Management of the American Cockroach
Search areas that provide warmth and high humidity.
■ Caulk around plumbing and other penetrations in walls; screen equipment drains and floor drains; keep drain traps full or capped.
■ Remove firewood stacked in attached garages, porches, patios, etc.
■ Replace mulch near doors and window wells with plastic absorptive ground cover and gravel.
■ Ventilate humid places.
■ Use pesticide formulations that are not readily absorbed by porous surfaces (concrete floors, bricks, stones, soil, etc.). Apply them in cracks and crevices.
■ Apply pesticides as outside barriers or spot treatments when they can be safely used in areas of known infestation.
■ Use space sprays to quickly reduce large population indoors.
■ Large bait stations are effective when properly placed in proper quantities.
■ A sex pheromone is available to attract males to traps.
On-going monitoring is important because of the long life span of this roach.
The Oriental cockroach is often called the waterbug and sometimes the black beetle, or just (incorrectly) beetle.
Oriental cockroaches favor crawl spaces, spaces between the soil and building foundations, the undersides of stoops and sidewalks, landscaping mulches, water meters, basements and their floor drains, and other such moist places. These cockroaches frequently live in floor drains that drain directly outside; these drains are also used as entrances to homes. The Oriental cockroach prefers starchy food and builds up populations around garbage cans. They tolerate lower temperature ranges than other roaches and may winter in rock walls or such protected sites. These cockroaches are more sensitive to lack of water than other roaches.
Control and Management of the Oriental Cockroach
Search areas of high humidity.
■ Caulk all penetrations through ground-level walls.
■ Stop water leaks, screen equipment overflow drains, and take overflow water away from buildings; keep drain traps full or capped.
■ Remove rotting leaves from window wells.
■ Move garbage cans out of preferred moist habitat.
■ Stop erosion that causes soil voids.
■ Ventilate moist spaces.
Many of the same insecticide applications used to reduce American cockroaches will work for the Oriental cockroach. Particular attention must be paid to pesticide degradation due to moisture.
Numbers observed in the spring may appear low or under control, only to build up by midsummer.
The term “bug” is slang for insect. Used technically, however, it refers to the thousands of species of the order Hemiptera, “true bugs,” which includes bedbugs. Most species of true bugs feed on plants; many feed on animals, other insects in particular; some are aquatic. Feeding is accomplished when the bugs pierce tissues with slender thread-like stylets (located in a “beak” on the front of the insect’s head) and suck up liquids. Bedbugs are indeed true bugs that suck blood.
This wingless bedbug, a notable blood-sucking parasite of humans throughout written history, has moved with us all over the world. The bedbug’s adaptation to humans is so complete their bites are nearly painless. In the United States, bedbugs have been one of the most important pests. They were disliked more than cockroaches, but DDT so effectively controlled bedbugs in the late 1940s that they are of minor importance today.
Bedbugs are dark reddish brown, oval and very flat. Adults are almost 1 /4 inch long and become mature in about four weeks when host blood is available and temperature, humidity, and harborage are favorable. If hosts are scarce, bedbugs can survive for a year without feeding.
Hosts include many species of vertebrates besides humans, including poultry, rodents, dogs, and cats. They infest shelters along hiking trails and cabins of summer camps and parks. The surprise occurrence of bedbugs in urban homes often can be traced to these recreation facilities.
Eggs. Eggs are deposited several times each day in protected places near the host’s sleeping area; several hundred might be deposited. Hatching occurs in one to two weeks, depending on temperature—the warmer the weather, the shorter the incubation time.
Nymphs. Nymphs, tiny and colorless at first, go through five molts, taking a blood meal between molts. This nymphal period can last from several weeks under favorable conditions to as long as a year when hosts are unavailable and temperatures are low.
Adults. Undergoing gradual metamorphosis, the bedbugs mate soon after becoming adults. Adult bedbugs prefer humans as hosts. Though they have been known to harbor several human diseases, there has been no record of disease transmission.
Under normal conditions, bedbugs feed at night. Flat bodies allow them to hide in cracks in beds, bedside furniture, dressers, wallboards, door and window frames, behind pictures, under loose wallpaper, and in rooms near host sleeping areas.
CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF BEDBUGS in Dubai
The bedroom is usually the center of infestation. All dark cracks and crevices are potential harborage.
■ Inspect camping sleeping equipment.
■ Inspect outdoor animal sheds and coops, even if not recently occupied.
Because bedbugs have alternative hosts besides humans (e.g., rodents, some birds, etc.), excluding these animals is very important. Though it is difficult, infested woodland cabins must be vermin-proofed.
■ Tighten, caulk, and screen routes of entry.
■ Store mattresses in protected areas.
■ To prevent mouse nesting, do not fold mattresses on cots when they are not in use.
■ Open protective harborage inside, such as wall voids, or tighten it up completely.
■ Open cabinets. This discourages rodent nesting.
■ Make crawlspaces accessible to predators and light.
■ Move woodpiles away from the structure.
■ Keep weeds and shrubs away from the foundation.
■ Eliminate garbage.
There is no tolerable number of bedbugs in occupied structures. Camps and hiking shelters should be treated only when there is evidence of an active bedbug infestation. Rodents found inside should be trapped or baited. Several general application pesticides labeled for bedbugs are available.
■ Dust or spray desiccating dusts or labeled insecticides, etc.
■ Use crack and crevice application methods to treat harborage thoroughly.
■ Treat furniture joints.
■ Ensure that treated tufted mattresses or depressed seams dry and are covered with bedding before they are used.
■ Leave time for drift or droplets to settle before bedtime.
■ Do not use space treatments or fogs. They are not effective.
■ Check state regulations. Some laws allow the use of appropriately labeled residual pesticides for cracks and crevices. This reduces the need for repeated applications.
If treated infestations recur, evaluate to determine whether some harborage was missed or if the structure is being reinfested; revise the management plan. Monitor structures where periodic reinfestation occurs. Remember, camps used only seasonally should have a pest management plan too. Keep good records on pesticide use and application methods. Educate clients and maintain communication. Emphasize that bedbugs do not transmit diseases.
Rats are social animals and live in colonies with well defined territories that they mark with urine and glandular secretions. The colony has a complex social hierarchy with a dominant male leader and a “pecking order” of subordinate males and ranking females. The strongest and most dominant animals occupy the best nest and resting sites and feed at their leisure. Weaker, subordinate rats are pushed out to less favorable sites or forced out of the territory completely. Rats are aggressive, and social conflicts are most common at feeding sites, prime resting areas, and territorial boundaries. Females fiercely defend their nests and young from other rats.
Rats must be understood to be controlled. Knowledge of their life histories, habitat and food requirements, patterns of behavior, range, and other factors is essential to their management.
Senses of Rats
Rats have poor vision. They are nearly color-blind, and they react to shapes and movement rather than identifying objects by sight. The limit of their vision is 30 to 45 feet. Their eyes are adapted to dim light.
Fear of New Objects (Neophobia)
Rats are wary of anything new that appears in their territory. A bait station, a trap, a block of wood will be avoided for a few days until the rats become familiar with the new object; even then, they approach cautiously. This fear of new objects can make baiting and trapping difficult. Rats will avoid poison bait when it is first placed.
Food and Water
Rats need about 1 ounce of food daily. Norway rats prefer protein-based foods such as meat, fish, insects, pet food, nuts, and grain. Household garbage is ideal food for Norway rats. However, they will feed on non-preferred food if nothing else is available. Rats often cache or hoard food in hidden areas. This food may or may not be eaten when other food supplies run short. Hoarding is important for two reasons. First, rats may be moving toxic bait into a location where the label does not permit it to be. Second, rats may be hoarding poison bait while feeding on their regular food. Thus, a baiting program becomes ineffective. Rats need water every day. The amount varies, depending on the moisture content of their food, but is usually around 1 /2 to 1 fluid ounce. Rats prefer to nest where water is easily available.
Rats give many signs that they are infesting an area. Inspection will determine if a site is infested and will identify where rats are feeding and nesting, their patterns of movement, the size of the population, and the extent of the infestation. This helps the pest control technicians decide what control measures to use, where and how to use them, and how much effort is needed to put the program in place.
An inspection using a powerful flashlight just after dark is the best way to see rats. Dead rats are signs of a current or past infestation. If all that are found are old, dried carcasses and skeletons, it may mean an old infestation. Many fresh carcasses are an indication that someone may be baiting the area currently. If rats are actively observed during the day, the rat population is probably high.
When a building is quiet, squeaks and fighting noises, clawing and scrambling in walls, or gnawing sounds may be heard. ■ Use a stethoscope or electronic listening device to help pinpoint activity.
A single rat may produce 50 droppings daily. Norway rat droppings are 3 /4 inch long. The highest number of droppings will be found in locations where rats rest or feed.
■ Determine if a rat population is active by sweeping up old droppings, then re inspect a week later for new droppings.
■ Look at the appearance of the droppings to determine if rats are currently active. Fresh rat droppings are black or nearly black, they may glisten and look wet, and they have the consistency of putty. After a few days or a week, droppings become dry, hard, and appear dull. After a few weeks, droppings become gray and dusty, and crumble easily. Note that old droppings moistened by rain may look like new droppings; however, if crushed, they will crumble and do not feel like soft putty.
Both wet and dry urine stains will glow blue-white under an ultraviolet light (blacklight).
■ Use portable ultraviolet lights developed by the food industry to identify rat urine on food items. Other substances besides rat urine also glow, so proper use of this inspection method takes practice.
Oil and dirt rub off of a rat’s coat as it scrambles along. The grease marks build up in frequented runways and become noticeable.
CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF RATS in Dubai
Most successful rat control programs use a combination of tools and procedures to knock down the rat population and to keep it down. Methods used combine habitat alteration and pesticide application. Some of the tools, such as baiting and trapping, are lethal to the rat. Some tools are not—rat-proofing, for example. Sometimes applicators recommend changes that their customers need to make, such as increasing the frequency of garbage pickup or making building repairs.
The following sections describe some of the major techniques and tools used in controlling rats:
Food Like all animals, rats need food to survive. Baiting programs often fail because the bait can’t compete with the rats’ regular food. The rats simply ignore the baits or cache them. Reducing the rats’ normal food encourages them to feed on any rodenticide baits placed in their territory.
■ Close or repair dumpsters and garbage containers that are left open or damaged.
■ Clean up food spills.
■ Do not allow food to be left out overnight.
■ Outdoors, remove seeds spilled under bird feeders or food around doghouses.
■ In warehouses and food plants, look for spills around railroad tracks and loading docks. Ensure food in storage is rotated properly (first in, first out) and is stored on pallets, not on the ground or against walls. The pallets should be 18 to 24 inches from side walls and placed so that aisles permit inspection and cleaning around the stored food.
Eliminate Hiding Places
■ Remove plant ground covers such as ivy near buildings.
■ Remove high grass, weeds, woodpiles, and construction debris that permit rats to live and hide adjacent to a building.
■ Reduce clutter in rarely used rooms—basements, storage rooms, equipment rooms.
■ Organize storage areas
In the long term, the most successful form of rat control is to build them out. Also called rat-proofing, this approach makes it impossible for rats to get into a building or an area of a building. Rat-proofing prevents new rats from reinfesting a building once it has been cleared.
■ Seal cracks and holes in building foundations and exterior walls.
■ Block openings around water and sewer pipes, electric lines, air vents, and telephone wires.
■ Screen air vents.
■ Caulk and seal doors to ensure a tight fit, especially between door and floor threshold.
■ Fit windows and screens tightly.
■ Caulk and close openings on upper floors and the roof, inspect under siding, and repair damaged soffits.
■ Repair breaks in the foundation below ground level.
■ Seal spaces inside hollow block voids or behind wallboard. Repair broken blocks and holes around pipes.
■ Repair gnaw holes or stuff them with copper wool.
■ Equip floor drains with sturdy metal grates held firmly in place.
Snap Trap. The snap trap is an effective method of killing rats when used correctly. Trapping is advised for use in places where rodenticides are considered too risky or aren’t working well, if the odor of dead rats in wall or ceiling voids would be unacceptable, or when there are only a few rats infesting a limited area.
Trapping has several advantages. There is less non-target risk from traps than from a toxicant. The technician knows instantly whether the trap has been successful. Traps also allow for disposal of the carcass so that there are no odor problems.
Another way to trap rats is with glue boards. Glue boards use a sticky material that captures rodents. Although most often used against mice, they are sometimes effective against rats. Be sure to use larger glue boards that have been designed to trap an animal the size of a rat. Be aware that some people consider glue boards inhumane because the rodents are not killed instantly.
■ Place glue boards in the same location as you would place snap traps. Place them lengthwise flush along the wall, box, or other object that edges a runway. Overhead runways along pipes, beams, rafters, and ledges are good sites too.
■ Do not place glue boards directly over food products or food preparation areas.
■ Secure the glue board with a nail or wire so a rat can’t drag it away.
■ Install glue boards in bait stations if people might be upset to observe a struggling rat, where children or pets could come in contact with the glue, or in areas with excessive dust or moisture.
■ Check glue boards frequently and dispose of rodents humanely.
■ Adding a dab of bait to the center of the glue board may improve its effectiveness.
A rodenticide is a pesticide designed to kill rodents. There are three major formulations of rodenticides used to control rats: food baits, water baits, and tracking powders. Food Baits. Rat baits combine a poison effective against rats with a food bait attractive to rats. At one time, applicators mixed their own baits. Now baits are mostly purchased ready-made and packaged as extruded pellets, in a dry meal, or molded into paraffin blocks for wet sites. Baits may be obtained in 45-pound bulk tubs, in “place packs” containing less than 1 ounce of bait, or anything in between. Some baits kill rats after a single feeding; some require multiple feedings. Some are anticoagulants (causing rats to bleed to death), some affect respiration, and others have totally different modes of action. Some are only slightly toxic to people or pets, some are moderately toxic, and some are very toxic. Many ancient poisons that are toxic to humans have been used to poison rodents. Experimentation with poisons for killing rodents produced rodenticides made of arsenic, cyanide, strychnine, etc.—stomach poisons that were mixed with food and had such extreme toxicity that they killed any animal that ingested them in sufficient amounts. Rats that did not eat a lethal dose, however, recovered, became “bait-shy,” and communicated their preference—or revulsion—to others in the colony. Because of this, these poisons were undependable. A new type of rodenticide was developed in the 1940s that reduced the clotting ability of the blood. This material, warfarin, became the first anticoagulant rodenticide.
A tamper-proof bait box is designed so that a child or pet cannot get to the bait inside but the rat can. Bait trays and flimsy plastic or cardboard stations are not tamper-proof bait boxes. Tamper-proof boxes vary in type and quality of construction, but they are usually metal or heavy plastic. Rat bait stations are normally larger than those used for mice. Most designs are not considered to be truly tamper-proof unless they can be secured to the floor, wall, or ground.
■ Ensure that bait boxes are clearly labeled with a precautionary statement.
■ Check stations or boxes periodically to make sure that rats are taking the bait and that the bait is fresh. Rats will rarely feed on spoiled bait.
■ Bait boxes should be placed wherever the rats are most active as determined by droppings and other signs (near burrows, along walls, at other travel sites, etc.).
■ Put bait packs in burrows, in wall voids, and similar protected sites. If a site is damp, use paraffin bait blocks or other water-resistant formulations. Put out enough bait and check it often. Incomplete baiting can lead to bait shyness and make control difficult.
■ Be sure to limit the rats’ normal food supply, or your baits may be rejected.
■ Remember that rats fear new objects at first, so your baits may not be taken for a few days or a week.
■ Once bait is taken, leave the box in place for some time. The rats now consider it to be part of their normal surroundings.
■ Good bait placements can be effective even when placed 15 to 50 feet apart. Bait placed outdoors around a commercial building can kill rats that are moving in from nearby areas.
Water baits. Rats drink water daily if they can. When rat water supplies are short, water baits—specially formulated rodenticides that are mixed with water—can be extremely effective. Several types of liquid dispensers are available. The best are custom designed for toxic water baits, but plastic chick-founts can also be used in protected sites. Use water baits only where no other animals or children can get to them.
Tracking Powders. Rats groom themselves by licking their fur. Tracking powder makes use of this behavior. This formulation is a rodenticide carried on a talc or powdery clay that is applied into areas where rats live and travel. The powder sticks to the rats’ feet and fur and is swallowed when the rats groom themselves. The major advantage to tracking powders is that it can kill rats even when food and water are plentiful, or if rats have become bait- or trap-shy. ■ Apply tracking powders more heavily than an insecticide dust but never deeper than 1 /8 inch. Best application sites are inside wall voids, around rub marks, along pipe and conduit runs, and in dry burrows (when permitted by label). Apply with a hand bulb, bellows duster, or with a (properly labeled) flour sifter or salt shaker.
■ Do not use tracking powders in suspended ceilings, around air ventilators, or near food or food preparation areas—the powder can become airborne and drift into non-target areas. The rodenticide in tracking powders is generally 5 to 40 times more concentrated than that in baits. Tracking powders can be made with acute poisons or slower acting poisons.
housefly (Musca domestica), which lives on garbage or manure
Control and Management of House Flies in Dubai
When this House flies become problems inside, their breeding site and their larvae will usually be close by. If animals are nearby, investigate for manure concentrations. Garbage cans and dumpsters are often the problem source; even soil where garbage has decomposed will support infestations.
■ Houseflies infest most garbage, manure (horses, cattle, poultry, pet), and filth accumulations.
Look for fly sources where buildings are infested. Observe sanitation in the areas where flies are problems.
■ The most common means of fly entry is through open doors. Look for door props and hooks, as well as gaps where broom handles are stuck over hinges to hold the door open or for doors that do not fit tightly.
■ Evaluate garbage management. Garbage left in the building or on loading docks is an attractant. Garbage should be removed from the premises twice a week.
Emphasize sanitation to remove food and breeding sites. If sanitation cannot be improved, other methods of control will not be effective. Make the following recommendations to clients:
■ Remove breeding materials such as garbage and manure.
■ Clean garbage cans and dumpsters regularly, and clean up any fresh overflow immediately.
■ Clean food-delivery spills immediately.
■ Drain wet areas around garbage collection sites.
■ Keep loading docks clean.
Use exclusion techniques to prevent flies from entering, such as:
■ Caulk and tighten around all openings, such as screens, doors, windows, ventilators, and eaves.
■ Install air curtains where doors remain open for deliveries, etc.
■ Install automatic door closers.
■ Replace white security lights inside and outside with yellow lights so flies are not attracted to the building.
■ Fly strips can be placed in low-access rooms, such as attics and storerooms.
■ Fly bait can eliminate adult flies when methods are in place that reduce breeding sites.
■ Aerosol contact sprays can be used to knock down adult flies after elimination of breeding sites and exclusion methods are in effect.
■ Ultra-low dosage applications of non-residual pesticides can be used if an adult infestation must be quickly reduced outside.
Non-chemical controls include:
■ Electric flytraps will control only a low level of adult flies. Watch these traps to see what kinds of flies are being caught.
■ Do not place blacklight flytraps where they will attract insects from outside. Do not put them in competition with other lights, such as those from vending machines, etc.
Regularly check sanitation and exclusion methods to see that they are being maintained. Observe client and worker habits that run counter to the pest management program (sanitation, habitat alteration, and so forth). Hold training clinics for workers about fly management.
Several species of Drosophila have been immensely beneficial to mankind because of their use in the study of genetics and heredity. Fruit flies are attracted to nearly any material that is fermented by yeast. These small flies commonly have bright red eyes, although some species’ eyes are dull dark red. The head and thorax are yellowish to brown, and the abdomen is light brown to dark with yellow bands.
Control and Management of Fruit Flies
When certain the infesting insect is a fruit fly, look for fermenting materials. Begin with ripe fruit and vegetables, then proceed to less obvious possibilities.
■ Use flytraps baited with bananas to find the most heavily infested areas when the source is very obscure.
■ Be sure to inspect the outside of the building near windows. Habitat Alteration
■ Close up gaps where flies can enter.
■ Use small-mesh screening to exclude these small flies.
■ Discard or clean infested material.
■ Use precautions to remove flies before fruit is brought to terminal points when the infestation originates in the field or orchard. Infestations in canneries and fruit markets are particularly difficult to manage.
The Family Psychodidae, Drain flies are about 1 /8 inch long. Their dark color comes from tiny hairs that cover the wings, which are held in roof-like fashion over the body. Moth flies have long, drooping antennae.
Larvae live in the gelatinous material in sink drain traps and sewers. Where sinks regularly overflow, these flies build up in the overflow pipe. When drain traps of sinks, commodes, and floor drains dry out, large numbers can enter dwellings from the sewer.
Drain traps should be cleaned mechanically or with drain cleaners. Without larval control, adults will constantly emerge. In sewage treatment plants, drain flies feed on the gelatinous material that collects on stones in trickling filter beds. Over time, however, cast skins from these filter.
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